Guo Z, Huang YJ, Chen Y, Duke NC, Zhong C, Shi S. Genetic discontinuities in a dominant mangrove Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae) in the Indo‐Malesian region. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. Prior to using model-based analytical approaches (BI and ML), nucleotide substitution models were selected based on the Akaike information criterion, as determined by jModelTest 2.1.4 [19]. Nypa fruticans; Acanthaceae. The accession numbers are listed in S2 Table. It is found growing in coastal and estuarine locations in India, south east Asia, Australia and Oceania. eucalyptifolia than to A. marina var. Avicennia L. is one of the most diverse mangrove genera, comprising eight species: A. germinans (L.) Stearn, A. schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. Kulit kayu berwarna keabu-abuan atau gelap kecoklatan, beberapa ditumbuhi tonjolan kecil, sementara yang lain kadang-kadang … To estimate substitution rates per year for dating purpose, we constructed a phylogenetic tree using 2,326 orthologous genes from the following species: Sesamum indicum, Avicennia officinalis, Avicennia marina, Acanthus leucostachyus and Acanthus ilicifolius (S1 Fig). Avicennia rumphiana. rumphiana subclade (P = 0.59; BS = 57% and 51% for ML and MP, respectively). Purified PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Contact; Avicennia alba Blume . Pneumatophores to about 20 cm tall, pencil-like. We estimated species divergence time with fossil calibration using coding sequences (CDS). (3) When did the IWP Avicennia species diversify and what was the possible driving force behind this divergence? Leaf tissue for DNA extraction was stored and dried in plastic bags with silica gel. Hewitt (2000) [57] proposed that sea level oscillations would lead to many changes in distribution of marine and coastal species in IWP. Duke NC. Multiple-sequence alignments were performed using ClustalW 2.1 [15] by leaving the default parameters unchanged and visually adjusting as necessary. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features Phoenix. However, an analysis of 22 morphological attribute means, such as width and length of the leaves, flowers, and fruit, as well as the inflorescence, stigma position, and propagule shape, suggested that A. rumphiana and A. alba were most closely related to each other [6], which is supported by the present study. Genetic diversity, distributional barriers and rafting continents–more thoughts on the evolution of mangroves, Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Avicennia marina in south-eastern Australia. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. … The crypto-viviparous Avicennia alba, A. marina and A. officinalis (Avicenniaceae) occurring in Godavari mangrove forest (16030’–17 00’N & 82010’– 80023’E) in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, were used for the present study. Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Avicennia marina :: Thane :: DVMAR06/17: 1 post by 1 author. The time range of fossils are the earliest and most conformed fossil was from Spain and dated to Middle Bartonia (38.3–39.4 MYA, [30]). The style of A. rumphiana and A. alba is minute and narrow, ending well below the anthers. Training Calendar Projects Development. Botany. The runs were repeated twice. ... also placed in Avicenniaceae, Verbenaceae. Giesen, Wim and Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten. Team RC. We used our molecular phylogeny to study evolution of flower morphology in Avicennia. Minobe S, Saiki R, Kajita T, Changtragoon S, Shukor NAA, Latiff A, et al. All sequences were deposited in GenBank. Plot of the first and second axis of a multidimensional scaling matrix based on pairwise genetic divergence value among IWP species of 25 nuclear genes. We next investigated the evolution of the flower characters among Avicennia species in IWP. In this study, diversification of the species of Avicennia in the IWP region was dated at approximately 6.0 MYA (95% HPD: 2.8~9.7 MYA; Fig 2). Analysis of 142 genes resolves the rapid diversification of the rice genus, Molecular phylogenetics and morphological evolution of Thunbergioideae (Acanthaceae), Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae s.l. Avcenia alba and Avicennia marina were distributed the shoreline, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avcenia alba and Bruguiera parviffora were distributed the seaward and then Avicennia officianalis, Cerops dencandra, C.tagal, Heritiera forms, H.littoralis, Sonneratia alba , S.graffithii, Xylocarpus granatum and X.moluccensis were distributed the landward. Phylogenetic analyses of this dataset using the BI, ML and MP methods yielded identical topologies (Fig 1; see detail in S2 Fig). Reid DG, Claremont M, Smith L, Shamoto M, Glaubrecht M, Ozawa T. Mosaics in the mangroves: allopatric diversification of tree-climbing mudwhelks (Gastropoda: Potamididae: Cerithidea) in the Indo-West Pacific. Among them, the first three are endemic to the Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) region; the remaining five are in the Indo-West Pacific region (IWP) [1]. Based on concatenated sequences of 25 nuclear genes, with A. germinans as the outgroup. Ajna Fern Schmidt HA, Strimmer K, Vingron M, von Haeseler A. TREE-PUZZLE: maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using quartets and parallel computing. The fieldwork was outside protected areas or natural reserves, and no specific permission was required for these collection activities. Li XX, Zou Y, Xiao CL, Gituru RW, Guo YH, Yang CF. Phoenix paludosa; Nypa. About OBIS Partnerships sponsor Governance. Each gene alignment was tested with a 5% level chi-squared test for stationary base composition at variable sites using TREE-PUZZLE-5.2 [16]. activities. The differential contributions of herkogamy and dichogamy as mechanisms of avoiding self-interference in four self-incompatible Epimedium species, The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms II. Xinnian Li, Norman C. Duke, [...], and Suhua Shi. State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 2 Using nuclear gene sequences sampled in this study, we were able to resolve phylogenetic relationships among five species of the IWP region. Avicennia officinalis, api-api daun lebar, api-api ludat. However, so far studies of the species from IWP have been relying on morphological and allozyme data [5]. AvicenniaL. Within the subclades, the initial split between A. alba and A. rumphiana was estimated to be c. 3.6 MYA, whereas the split between A. officinalis and A. integra was estimated to have occurred c. 2.4 MYA. Our phylogeny reveals with high confidence that Avicennia is divided into two distinct clades, consistent with our expectations based on geography and systematics. Avicennia alba on Total Vascular Flora of Singapore Online: photos and fact sheet. kingdom Plantae > subkingdom Viridiplantae … Diagnostic characters Botany & morphology Regeneration Reproductive biology Ecology Distribution Uses. Bayesian inference was performed using MrBayes 3.2.6 [20] with the models mentioned above. Sorenson L, Allen GR, Erdmann MV, Dai C-F, Liu S-YV. Therefore, we selected two important flower structure phenotypes: stigma position and style length. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, et al. We further concatenated the sequences of 25 nuclear genes to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the IWP species, with Avicennia germinans as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationship between species is based on the phylogenic analyses from chloroplast and nuclear genes. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Bootstrapping of the datasets was performed with 500 replications, and all node values for the ML trees are represented as the proportion of replicates in which that clade was recovered. Cultivated plant at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London Photograph by: … The divergence time for species in the Indo-Western Pacific (IWP) region was calibrated by mcmctree 4.8a [25]. (2) What are the phylogenetic relationships of the five IWP Avicennia species and what do they tell us about evolution of flower characters? Herkogamy. Acanthus. Miller KG, Kominz MA, Browning JV, Wright JD, Mountain GS, Katz ME, et al. Duke NC, Benzie JA, Goodall JA, Ballment ER. Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. One of the species in the IWP, A. marina, has the broadest distribution of all mangroves, ranging from approximately 25° N to 38° S. Three infraspecific taxa within A. marina have been recognized: A. marina var. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. data. The numbers and letters refer to sample identity is listed in Table 1. Avicennia alba Blume - Ocean Biogeographic Information System. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. Within the IWP clade, A. officinalis was the sister to A. integra, with a high level of support (P = 1.00 and BS = 88% and 95%). Ken Fern, Individual flowers in the Avicennia genus are perfectly protandrous to avoid selfing [2, 36]. In fact, those two species share some taxonomically important morphological characters (e.g., stamens markedly unequal; one pair is short and the one pair is long). The result was also supported by two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and the length of the styles. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Cerbera oddloam fruit on the tree. In contrast, the stigma is positioned level with the middle or the lower edge of the anthers in the A. marina complex. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. Fig 1 shows divergence time estimates. PCR was conducted with the following conditions: 94°C for 4 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94°C for 30 seconds, 48–58°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 2 minutes, and a final extension of 8 minutes at 72°C. Avicennia Alba subscribed to a channel 9 months ago Le Monde - Channel. Richard Morris. Avicennia alba Blume - AVICENNIACEAE - Dicotyledon Common name in Tamil : Vellai kandai Common name in Telugu : Gundu mada, vilava mada. Previous morphological analyses produced conflicting results regarding their affinity to other species of Avicennia. Ancestral states reconstruction for stigma position is shown in the S5 Fig, while the results for style length are in the S6 Fig. Home; about. Sequencing reactions were conducted with amplification primers in an ABI 3730 DNA automated sequencer with BigDye chemistry (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Akar nafas biasanya tipis, berbentuk jarum yang ditutupi oleh lentisel. We obtained samples from eight accessions of Avicennia, including A. germinans, A. officinalis, A. integra, A. alba, A. rumphiana, and three varieties of A. marina (A. marina var. Townsville Queensland: James Cook University; 1988. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Sequencing multiple loci has been a successful strategy used to resolve phylogenetic relationships among numerous species [10, 11]. Habit of Avicennia alba The pneumatophores of arise from lateral root growing out of the sand Fruiting branch Flowers. eucalyptifolia along the coast of East Australia is difficult to explain without positing an additional barrier in this region. (Lamiales), A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. For the chloroplast matrix, the best-fit model was a general time reversible model with a gamma correction for rate variation among sites (GTR + G). Our phylogenetic tree suggests that A. rumphiana and A. alba are closely related to each other and form a basal subclade in the IWP lineage. Two selected morphological characters of taxonomic importance (source from [1]) have been mapped on the tree. Both species have an elongate flask- or ampulla-shape style exerted above or equal to the upper edge of anthers. The length of style is from 0.2–0.4mm [1]. Although the first fossil record of Avicennia in the IWP region dates back to the late Eocene of southwest Australia, significant flourishing of Avicennia in this region has occurred since the Miocene [39–41]. The assumed range of divergence time (from 10 to 50 million years ago, MYA) between the IWP and AEP lineages was estimated by a previous study based on fossil records and molecular dating [27]. Sprouted seeds of the mangrove plant Avicennia alba Australia Grey Mangrove (Avicennia marina) tree seeds ... yellow flower blossom of Sea Hibiscus Hibiscus tiliaceus marine ecosystem SUNGEI BULOH WETLAND RESERVE singapore ASIA Mangroves. These have been sequenced in our lab or have published in genomes or transcriptomes [28, 29], as well as a fossil record [30]. It plays a significant role in supporting the coastal ecosystem and holds unique potential for studying molecular mechanisms underlying ecological adaptation. These estimates support the conclusion that varieties of A. marina diverged more recently, in the Pleistocene, possibly during periods of lowered sea levels during periods of glaciation [43]. We ran the Markov chains for 10,000,000 generations, with one cold and three heated chains, starting from random trees and saving one out of every 1,000 samples. #Acanthaceae Trouver la graines de mangrove photo idéale Une vaste collection, un choix incroyable, plus de 100 millions d’images LD et DG abordables de haute qualité. with help from mangrove canopy that feed the mangrove flower of Sonneratia alba, Avicennia alba and Lumnitzera racemosa. Brazil M, Thomas DA, Nielsen BK, Winter P, Wulff‐Nilsen C, Zachariasen M. A novel approach to phylogenetic trees: d‐Dimensional geometric Steiner trees. IWP: Indo-West Pacific region; AEP: Atlantic-East Pacific region. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) marina, A. marina var. However, the divergence between var. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Solitary tree with lots of pneumatophores (breathing roots), http://en.sl.life.ku.dk/Publikationer/Udgivelser/PopulaerPublikationer.aspx?katid={D28373CC-6EF3-4EF8-B097-6D83FABF209E}&serieid={9F1C3DB1-6E7B-4CF1-AF53-F480B0CB40EF}&sort=title, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. rumphiana subclades first diverged c. 6.0 MYA, while the other two subclades diverged from each other c. 5.3 MYA. The larvae of certain small moths, Euopoicillia spp., feed on the flower buds and those of another moth, Autoba alabastrata, feed on the fruits. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. Additional field observations and investigations of flower phenology in Avicennia species are needed to establish evolutionary significance of this observation. Since our data set included introns as well as CDS, we adjusted the substitutions rate (μ) by inferring the μ intron/μCDS using Kintron/KCDS, where K is the number of segregating sites between A. marina and A. alba from 24 nuclear genes. Prior to combining the sequences, congruence was examined using the partition–homogeneity test by PAUP* 4b10 [17, 18]. Maddison WP, Maddison DR. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Avicennia alba; Avicennia marina The calibration point at the basal position of Avicennia was set as B (0.1, 0.5), with 100 million years as one time unit. Plaziat J-C, Cavagnetto C, Koeniguer J-C, Baltzer F. History and biogeography of the mangrove ecosystem, based on a critical reassessment of the paleontological record, Southeast Asia's changing palaeogeography. It is found mainly in sandy or firm silt substrate of the mid to high water mark. Mida creek. The shrub does not grow more than 20 m. The dark green leaves, 15 cm long by 5 cm wide, have a silvery gray under leaf and grow in opposites. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. Gaither MR, Bowen BW, Bordenave TR, Rocha LA, Newman SJ, Gomez JA, et al. Sea levels, however, began to fluctuate because of climate change [43]. Wide sampling and population-genomic studies are necessary to reveal the demography of Avicennia marina and to understand the causes of evolution and diversification of Avicennia species. Our results shed fresh light on the evolution of this important mangrove clade and should enable further studies of this group’s remarkable adaptation to the intertidal environment. Subsequently, bootstrap analyses were performed on 500 replicates [22] using the options described above. 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