Permutation is a process where the letters within a text are kept the same, but the position changes to scramble the message. 55: NCSAM: National Cyber Security Awareness Month Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (such as the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Softwares can be used for automatic password sniffing. The integrity of a system or network is the assurance that information is protected, and is only made available to those who are authorised. Spim is unwanted, unsolicited instant messages from someone you don't know. Once a packet has arrived at a gateway or connection point with its unique network number, it can be routed to its destination within the internal gateways using the subnet number. Static routing is a form of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from a dynamic routing traffic. A form of filtering that only allows connections to a pre-approved list of sites that are considered useful and appropriate for children. The binary value of all 8 bits set (or turned on) is 11111111, equal to the hexadecimal value FF, the decimal value 255, and the octal value 377. When the host file or MBR is accessed, it activates the virus enabling it to infect other objects. A proxy server is a server that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. The CAUDIT Cybersecurity Community of Practice (CoP) serves as both a strategic and functional vehicle. C2 is a computer security class defined in the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. Polyinstantiation is the ability of a database to maintain multiple records with the same key. Attackers use various malware and viruses to take control of computers to form a botnet (robotic network), which will send further attacks such as spam and viruses to target computers or networks. We have The socket tells a host's IP stack where to plug in a data stream so that it connects to the right application. A node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Threats can contain programs, often referred to as payloads that perform malicious activities such as denial-of-service attacks, destruction or modification of data, changes to system settings, and information disclosure. plaintext/ciphertext pairs for a given encryption algorithm). It is a process used to determine using which path a packet or datagram can be sent. An organization's cybersecurity should be defined in a security policy, verified through evaluation techniques (such as vulnerability assessment and penetration testing) and revised, updated and improved over time as the organization evolves and as new threats are discovered. A secure subsystem is a subsystem containing its own implementation of the reference monitor concept for those resources it controls. Backdoors are created by developers to speed access through security during the development phase. Symbolic links are essentially advanced shortcuts that point to another file. The purpose of a DDoS attack is to significantly amplify the level of the attack beyond that which can be generated by a single attack system in order to overload larger and more protected victims. An encryption system protects the privacy of data exchanged by a website and the individual user. Whether you’re embarking on a cybersecurity journey by understanding essential defensive methods or expanding to product-specific training, we have courses to help you excel. Real time is pertaining to the performance of a computation during the actual time that the related physical process transpires so that the results of the computation can be used to guide the physical process. However, they may use illegal means to gain access to the net work to expose the security weakness. TERMS OF REFERENCE 1. This reduces the load of the system. These actions include DoS flooding attacks, hosting false Web services, spoofing DNS, transmitting SPAM, eavesdropping on network communications, recording VOIP communications and attempting to crack encryption or password hashes. Overload is defined as the limitation of system operation by excessive burden on the performance capabilities of a system component. MDM (master data management) is a comprehensive method of enabling an enterprise to link all of its critical data to one file, called a master file, that provides a common point of reference. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks and more. When an attack is identified, or abnormal behaviour is detected, an alert is sent to the administrator. The TRU ITS Information Security Team supports the University's mission by evaluating information security vulnerabilities and implementing technologies, procedures, and guidelines to ensure that appropriate levels of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of … Membership . The CRC is an error-detecting code commonly used to detect accidental changes to raw data. It is used as a screen of numbers used for routing traffic within a subnet. Some AV products have adopted technologies to potentially detect new and unknown malware. It is the entry or exit point from a computer for connecting communications or peripheral devices. A set of forms) is used to customize your next visit to the same web server. Firewalls are installed and run on individual computers. It defines the objectives and constraints for the security program. Spyware can track a user’s internet surfing habits for advertising habits, scan computers to create pop up ads, and change one’s homepage to redirect to pre chosen websites. Discretionary Access Control is a security measure, by which the owner can restrict the access of the resources such as files, devices, directories to specific subjects or users or user groups based on their identity. SSH is a UNIX-based command interface and protocol used to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. A Split Horizon is an algorithm used to prevent routing loops in distance-vector routing protocols by prohibiting a router from advertising a route back onto the interface from which it was learned. A windowing system is a system that is used for sharing a computer's graphical display presentation resources among multiple applications at the same time. Authenticity is the proof that a claimed identity is legitimate. To encipher is to convert plain text to cipher text via a cryptographic system. Eavesdropping is when one secretly listens to a conversation. Rules, filters or ACLs can be defined to indicate which traffic is allowed to cross the firewall. It ensure proper authentication of users and allows only authorised users to access a server. A declaration issued by an interested party that specified requirements have been met. remote maintenance activities conducted by individuals communicating external to an information system security perimeter. Phishing attacks can take place over e-mail, text messages, through social networks or via smart phone apps. It also provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, and wikis for every project. 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