Plutarch disagrees with this account, giving an entirely different version of Crassus' death. And while it’s difficult to illustrate the extent of Crassus’ prosperity, one Roman writer once estimated the statesman’s worth to be equivalent to that of the entire Roman Republic. the Roman leader set out to the Middle East, with the promise of acquiring yet greater riches. "The Death of Marcus Licinius Crassus" "The Death of Marcus Licinius Crassus" shows Crassus before gold is poured down his throat. When he was in his late twenties, Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna captured Rome … After news of his death reached Rome, rumors began to circulate that the Parthians had poured molten gold into the mouth of his corpse to mock his greed. In fact, today it is thought that Crassus is among the wealthiest people ever to have graced the earth. The remaining Romans at Carrhae attempted to flee, but most were captured or killed. According to some historical sources, Crassus died from drinking molten gold, but is this really true? What’s more, such was the extent of his failure that even today certain Mediterranean dialects still refer to a particularly idiotic error as a “crassus.”. But Crassus, of course, was already very financially wealthy. Mar­cus Licinius Cras­sus was the sec­ond of three sons born to the em­i­nent sen­a­tor and vir tri­umphalis Pub­lius Licinius Cras­sus Dives (con­sul 97, cen­sor 89 BC). But Crassus still had aspirations aside from wealth – as did Pompey and Caesar for that matter. it was reported as having been put to death by the Parthians after losing the battle of Carrhae, by being forced to drink a goblet of molten gold, symbolic of his great wealth. Reportedly, Orodes poured molten gold into Crassus’ mouth, saying: “Satisfy … Known for his wealth, he died in the battle of Carrhae. Crassus was born a wealthy man, but he lost his entire inheritance during the Marian-Cinnan proscriptions, in which he was forced to flee to Hispania (the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula). His father, Publius Licinius Crassus, had once been a consul, which was an extremely powerful position within the Roman Republic. This meant that by Crassus’ order, 10 percent of his own troops were randomly selected and executed. Marcus Licinius Crassus (/ ˈ k r æ s ə s /; c. 115 BC or 112 BC – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.He is often called "The richest man in Rome". He had been a capable military leader as well as a successful statesman. And it was only if the owner accepted the measly bid that Crassus would permit the brigade to do their job. But despite Crassus’ resentment of Pompey, it’s reported that he requested his rival’s help in securing the second consulship position. The Parthian general Surena decisively defeated a Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, who died at the battle. And in 59 B.C. Your nearest city annexes this tile into its territory. was a Roman general and politician. The young Marcus Licinius Crassus had been sent off to Spain to insure his safety. He was a Roman politician and commander, a member of the First Triumvirate. Yes, after Crassus had split the slave forces, his rival Pompey arrived to sure up the win. Crassus was reluctant to meet with the Parthians, but his troops threatened to mutiny if he did not. Marcus Licinius Crassus is said to be the richest man in Rome and is also a senator of the Republic. Along with Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) and Pompey the Great (106-48 BCE), Crassus formed the First Triumvirate that effectively ruled the Roman Republic from 60 to 53 BCE. Note 2: Named after the deceased general Gaius Marius, whose son would assume command after Cinna’s death. The Roman Republic ceased to exist, and the Roman Empire came to be – with democracy existing only in memory. Crassus became a politician and used his wealth to gain support from senators. The correct answers would be: No one knows what happened to the gold, as there is no written record documenting its disposition, and it is possible he had a tomb built and had his gold hid there. Licinius Crassus's wife is unknown, but he had a son living at his death, also named Publius Licinius Crassus, who organized magnificent funeral games in 183 BC. As a prominent politician and military official within the ancient Roman Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus led a life of war, spoils and power. It was military prestige – for which Caesar and Pompey were revered – that he felt that he was lacking. Crassus and his generals were murdered. Crassus fled from Rome when Gaius Marius captured the city in 87. Marcus Licinius Crassus (from the First Triumvirate) was considered to be richest man ever. It was full of bloody wars, cruel rulers, and strange social practices. It seems like a treasure like that would be noted in the annals, but I haven't seen anything Plutarch about this. The el­dest brother Pub­lius (born c. 116 BC) died shortly be­fore the Italic War and Mar­cus took the brother's wife as his own. But he eventually steadied his efforts by demonstrating his more fearsome side. Crassus Born about 115 BC, Marcus Licinius Crassus did not come from a particularly wealthy family, but they enjoyed an enviable social position. The death of Crassus death created a major political vacuum in Rome with the untying of his clientelae and political dependants such as senators, equestrians, tribunes, etc. Otherwise, the team would simply cheer as the structure burned to the ground. And Crassus’ lust for wealth became very well-known. The Parthians then offered to negotiate with Crassus, but the negotiation consisted of them killing him and, in some accounts, sending his head on to their king who poured molten gold down his throat saying “Sate thyself now with that of which thou wert in life so greedy”. What’s more, Crassus’ support of Caesar would prove to be of significant consequence for the Roman Republic. Marcus Licinius Crassus (115 – 53 BC) was a leading figure of the late Roman Republic, and its wealthiest citizen. Of course, each of the men harbored their own ideologies and desires in contrary to the other two. He is today remembered for being the wealthiest man in ancient Rome, suppressing the slave revolt led by Spartacus and forming the so-called First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey to challenge effectively the power of the Senate. And to the wealthy Roman’s credit, this is one of the first cases of a functional fire brigade known to us today. Birthdate: estimated between 88BCE and 28BCE. Advertisement. Crassus was the son of Publius Licinius Crassus, who was consul in 97 BCE and a commander in Iberia, even gaining a triumph for his victories in Lusitania in 93 BCE. It is worth mentioning that in the half of the 1st century BCE in Rome, there were no fire fighting services. His insatiable greed and need for greatness led him undertake a pointless invasion, which ultimately cost him his life. But upon hearing Pompey’s title, Crassus would apparently sarcastically dismiss it by asking, “Why, how big is he?”. Death: Molten gold poured down his throat. It remains unknown whether Crassus died fighting or committed suicide to prevent being captured. Yes, the First Triumvirate was a powerful force, and three leaders dominated Roman politics for all of seven years. Two consuls were elected each year, typically to oversee administrative matters during times of peace and to command the military during times of war. Crassus was a wealthy Roman businessman of the first century BCE, and one of the three Romans who made up the first Triumvirate, along with Pompey and Julius Caesar. Tiberius Licinius Crassus is the son of Marcus Licinius Crassus. You see, at one point he was accused of inappropriate behavior with a Vestal Virgin – a female priest bound to chastity. He is today remembered for being the wealthiest man in ancient Rome, suppressing the slave revolt led by Spartacus and forming the so-called First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey to challenge effectively the power of the Senate. So the two great rivals were now serving the Roman Republic as consuls, yet their differences continued to define their relationship. This grandfather was descended from a consul and censor Publius Licinius Crassus Dives , best known for being Pontifex Maximus (from 212 BC to his death 183 BC) and consul (in 205 BC) and political ally of the Roman general and statesman Scipio Africanus. Yet in spite of the vast fortune and prestige that he had amassed for himself, he perpetually strived for more. And aside from directly seizing enemy holdings, he apparently used to carry out one particularly crooked trick. Marcus Licinius P. f. M. n. Crassus Dives, the triumvir, was consul in 70 and 55 BC, and censor in 65 . You see, without the third member of their Triumvirate to provide equilibrium, Caesar and Pompey’s relationship broke down. In fact, he probably garnered more recognition than Crassus and earned his epithet – “the Great” – as a result of the conflict. And unable to move forward in agreement with regard most issues, their time as consuls accomplished little. Crassus attacked Parthia not only because of its great source of riches, but because of a desire to match the military victories of his two major rivals, Pompey the Great and Julius Caesar. 4 sestertii is one denarius. The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the ancient town of Carrhae. So having secured his incredible wealth, Crassus turned his focus onto the development of his political life. Furthermore, he was once honored by the Republic for his military service with a Roman triumph – a celebration of a military figure’s accomplishments in which they were paraded through the streets. Yes, reflecting Crassus’ ruthless pursuit for wealth, the Parthians are said to have poured liquid gold into his throat. The Greek writer Plutarch, born in the first century A.D., put together a biography of the prominent Roman, describing his rapacious reputation. This time Augustus emerged as the victor, becoming the first Emperor of Rome. Marcus Licinius Crassus, better known as Crassus, was born in 115 B.C.E. Their empire was the most lasting of the empires of the ancient Near East. 115 BC – 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who commanded Sulla's decisive victory at Colline gate, suppressed the slave revolt led by Spartacus and entered into a secret pact, known as the First … Furthermore, he insisted that their remains stay upon their crosses to rot in full sight of onlookers. Indeed, it was around this time that he developed a reputation for “avarice” – or greed, in layman’s terms. The Famous People. Crassus befriended a vestal virgin named Licinia and was accused of having criminal intimacy with her. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born in 115 BC in the Roman Republic. Indeed, this was the case following the Third Servile War – otherwise known as the War of Spartacus. And so in 55 B.C. Yet in spite of the vast fortune and prestige that… But any hopes for peace in Rome didn’t last long. But he was exonerated on the basis that he was pursuing her property, rather than the woman herself. Crassus Born about 115 BC, Marcus Licinius Crassus did not come from a particularly wealthy family, but they enjoyed an enviable social position. And upon first assuming control of the Roman military, Crassus himself initially struggled in the war. Crassus of Rome was a character on Xena: Warrior Princess.He was one of three rulers of the Roman Republic, along with Julius Caesar and Pompey.. Whilst in Syria, he was captured by Xena, in order for her to trade him for Vercinix, the hero of Gaul, of whom Caesar has captured and promised the entire nation of Italia that he will be publically executed in the Colosseum. In fact, he developed into one of Sulla’s more capable military officers, significantly aiding the general’s efforts to take over Rome. Parthians: Their Great Empire And Skilled Horse Archers, War Between Romans And Persians Lasted 721 Years: World’s Longest Human Conflict In History, Achaemenid Empire Was The World’s Largest Ancient Empire. Within four years of Crassus’ death, Caesar would cross the Rubicon and begin a civil war against Pompey and the Optimates. It resulted in the annihilation of his legions and his own death; culminating, it is said, in the Parthians pouring molten gold into his mouth to signify his notorious hunger for riches. You see, 6,000 slaves had been captured following the Battle of the Silarius River, and Crassus subsequently ordered their crucifixion. 15. the Battle of the Silarius River took place in Italy. Yet in spite of his victory, the Roman leader was still moved to demonstrate his ruthlessness once again. Marcus Licinius Crassus has been listed as a level-4 vital article in People. Written by - Ellen Lloyd – AncientPages.com, Copyright © AncientPages.com  All rights reserved. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born in 114 BCE. This action can be performed 3 times. We know that the ancient world was a pretty odd place. Pompey, meanwhile, was forced to flee to Egypt, where he was subsequently assassinated. But despite having played a crucial role in winning the war, Crassus didn’t receive the credit that he perhaps deserved. And this drastic measure instilled such fear within Crassus’ soldiers that they were forced to submit to his authority. I'm Marcus Licinius Crassus / No rich man could ever surpass us / Wanted people to say I was brave / But I lost my first fight and hid in a cave / Living there could be a pauper's That’s right, Crassus was responsible for the formation a fire brigade, which was made up of slaves. And so Crassus was sent to crush it. Envied and despised by the highborn among the Senate, he craves the power and respect that defeating Spartacus and his Rebel army would bring him.. Having initially been a mentioned-only character in the first two seasons, he is the main antagonist of the final season of Spartacus. This page (now edited) repeated a story about Crassus that he was executed by having molten gold poured down his throat. Today, Spartacus is known as something of a popular icon. Marcus Licinius Crassus Iunior. A bust of Roman statesman and general Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115-53 BCE). Marcus Licinius Crassus (ca. Crassus used Syria as the launchpad for a military campaign against the Parthian Empire, Rome's long-time Eastern enemy. Following this, Young Marcus went into hiding. Thanks in part to his powerful position, Crassus’ father had become relatively wealthy throughout his lifetime. Pliny estimated Crassus' wealth at c. 200 million sestertii. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian Empires and one of the most … During this action, Spartacus himself actually attempted to strike down Crassus. Marcus Licinius Crassus is best remembered by history as the third member of the First Triumvirate along with Caesar and Pompey. And they were apparently no strangers to irony in dealing with the man, either. And he even later actually managed to acquire the premises that he sought. Which is 7.3 grams of gold. Soon Crassus became a very rich man. Crassus had been on the victorious side, then, and subsequently he set about establishing his own wealth. Crassus needed a military victory to consolidate his grip on power and make a name for himself in military matters. The Roman politician Crassus once amassed a great fortune. Beginnings. He is given the duty of defeating Spartacus and his army along with Crassus, and is using this opportunity to please and gain favor from his father by doing so. He was the second son of the renowned senator Publius Licinius Crassus. However, being known for his greediness, the court acquitted him. Think about it. Or 14.6k kilograms of gold. And it was an act of  folly that would cost him his life. Crassus is quite useful for a city near an opposing player as you can quickly claim useful tiles an/or stifle the other city's growth. Marcus Licinius Crassus was one of the richest Romans in history. Crassus' grandfather was Marcus Licinius Crassus Agelastus, of whom little is known. Plutarch said that “before he (Crassus) went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities." His death led to the outbreak of the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey (49–45). Significantly, this coalition meant that they were powerful enough to challenge the Roman Senate – essentially allowing the trio to rule the Republic. The Roman Republic’s Richest Man Died Choking on Gold. 21. Crassus is quite useful for a city near an opposing player as you can quickly claim useful tiles an/or stifle the other city's growth. 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This Man Was Said To Be The Richest In The World, But His Lust For Gold Led To The Most Brutal Death By Staff Writer As a prominent politician and military official within the ancient Roman Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus led a life of war, spoils and power. Sulla won the war and became the dictator of the Roman Republic. Eventually, then, the troops forced Spartacus into a final battle. Back to Great Merchants Marcus Licinius Crassus is a Classical Era Great Merchant in Civilization VI. They also said they poured molten gold in his mouth to represent his greed. Copyright © 2019 Battery Media Group – All Rights Reserved. This particular war was fought between factions led by Lucius Cornelius Sulla on one side and Gaius Marius on the other. Remarkably, Crassus’ reputation for greed even served to help him emerge from a scandal. There were heavy losses to both sides in the battle, in fact, but ultimately the slaves were defeated. Marcus Licinius Crassus (115 – 53 BC) was a leading figure of the late Roman Republic, and its wealthiest citizen. 25 denarii is one aureus. In fact, their inability to work together essentially weakened the power of their office. Marcus Licinius Crassus.. began Sinitta, The man with the golden toga and silver tongue. In 87 BCE, on the losing side against the forces of Gaius Marius and Cornelius Cinna, he committed suicide and the young Crassus fled to Spain. His fa­ther and the youngest brother Gaius took their own lives in Rome in win­ter 87–86 BC to avoid cap­ture when he was being hunted down by the Ma… Ellen Lloyd – MessageToEagle.com – Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 B.C. Marcus Lincinius Crassus, an astoundingly wealthy Roman general, is rumored to have died this way, as is Roman Emperor Valerian the Elder (though others contest that … It remains unknown whether Crassus died fighting or committed suicide to prevent being captured. As a result, they established an alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Gain 60 Gold. In order to strengthen their affiliation, the Triumvirate convened in the town of Luca, in what today is central Italy. At the meeting, a Parthian pulled at Crassus' reins, sparking violence. The death of Crassus (Marcus Licinius Crassus) is a classic Roman object lesson in greed. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born in 115 BC in the Roman Republic. Indeed, it was on Caesar’s advice that Crassus and Pompey attempted to put aside the animosity that had previous plagued their relationship. In effect, Crassus had brought the Third Servile War to an end. Indeed, while other notable figures of the time were known for their leadership and military skills, Crassus was despised for his selfishness. Publius Licinius P. f. P. n. Crassus Dives, a nephew of the triumvir, squandered his fortune. The Roman Republic’s Richest Man Died Choking on Gold. was a Roman general and politician. Marcus Licinius Crassus, (born c. 115 bc —died 53), politician who in the last years of the Roman Republic formed the so-called First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey to challenge effectively the power of the Senate. Following his emergence from the cave in Spain, Crassus fought on the side of Sulla throughout the civil war. When Crassus died, a Civil War broke out between Caesar and Pompey. Upon arriving in Parthia, the extent of Crassus’ lack of planning swiftly became evident. And it was this insatiable greed that led to his downfall – and, ultimately, to his violent and elaborate death. Historian Cassius Dio wrote that the enemy “poured molten gold into his mouth. Nonetheless, the head and right hand of Crassus were sent to King Orodes of Parthia. But despite Crassus’ greed helping in that case, it generally made him unpopular within the Republic. From here, the Parthians attacked and overwhelmed the Romans, surrounding them and forcing them to surrender. Early Life . His father, Publius Licinius Crassus, was consul in 97 BC, a commander in Iberia and was honored with a triumphus, Rome's highest military honor in 93 BC. He earned his fortune of proscriptions, slave trafficking, judicious purchases of land and houses, purchases of burning property. and 112 B.C. However, Crassus senior then took his own life after losing a battle in 87 B.C. Licinius Crassus Dives, praetor in 59 BC, was perhaps the same as Publius Licinius Crassus Dives, nephew of the triumvir. Indeed, following the military leaders’ return to Rome, Pompey was honored with a triumph; Crassus, meanwhile, received an inferior tribute. —53 BC.) His father, Publius Licinius Crassus, was consul in 97 BC, a commander in Iberia and was honored with a triumphus, Rome's highest military honor in 93 BC. But after four years of bitter conflict, Caesar emerged as the victor in 45 B.C. Immediate Family: Son of Marcus Licinius Crassus and Axia Tertulla Crassus. BC – 53 BC) was one of two sons of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus and Tertulla. Crassus and his legions were defeated by the Parthian King Orodes II. Image credit: Diagram Lajard. But while the rebel tried to fight his way in the direction of the Roman leader, he could only get so far. When Crassus men demanded he parley, there was a fight at the meeting point that left Crassus dead. He sponsored politicians, including Julius Caesar, whose political rise he bankrolled, and amassed considerable power. Marcus Licinius Crassus (ca. Known as Sulla’s second civil war, the conflict was just one of many internal struggles which afflicted Ancient Rome. He sponsored politicians, including Julius Caesar, whose political rise he bankrolled, and amassed considerable power. Lancelot Blondeel, 16th century. Yes, it seems that Crassus was envious of the high regard with which Pompey was held within the Roman Republic. So, in 53 B.C. Crassus’ father then took up the esteemed role of censor. Crassus was known as one of the wealthiest men in Rome. The Battle of Carrhae in 53 BCE was one of the greatest military catastrophes in all of Roman history when a hero of the Spartacus campaign, Marcus Licinius Crassus (115-53 BCE), initiated an unprovoked invasion of Parthian territory (modern Iran). Acknowledging Crassus’ backing in becoming consul, Caesar saw to it that a vast chunk of public debt – some of which was Crassus’ – was written off. Publius married Cornelia Metella , the intellectually gifted daughter of the optimate Metellus Scipio , and began his active political career as a monetalis and by providing a security … His death was an ignominious failure, he and his son and most of his army slaughtered by the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae. Historian Cassius Dio wrote that the enemy “poured molten gold into his mouth. Proscriptions were only part of his overall wealth. Indeed, with the consequences of not fighting now seemingly more perilous than opposing the enemy, the soldiers fought even harder. If you can improve it, ... Death of Crassus. the pair successfully backed Caesar to become consul. Crassus was known as … Crassus got his revenge while commanding the left wing of Lucius Cornelius Sulla’s army, making a fortune from proscriptions himself. Crassus’ military campaign was a disastrous failure, resulting in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae. And so, in the manner of true tragedy, Crassus’ most prominent personal fault ensured his own demise. All because Marcus Licinius Crassus had been raised to crave glory. Late Pleistocene Human Colonization – What Makes Our Species Unique Compared To Other Hominins? Crassus was well-known for being greedy. And so, having captured the Roman alive, they decided to execute him in a fitting manner. Marcus Licinius Crassus was born in the year 115 BC, the son of Publicus Licinius Crassus.Though his father had been censor and had celebrated a triumph, Crassus grew up in a small house which was home not only to him and his parents but also to his two elder brothers and their families.. Like Crassus, Pompey had been recognized as a strong military leader throughout the course of Sulla’s second civil war. [3][43] 23. If the offer was refused, Crassus would let the property burn to the ground. His insatiable hunger for wealth led him to acquire most of the property in Rome and gain great political power by keeping much of the Roman Senate in his pocket. This meant that he was in charge of documenting population data as well as maintaining civil decency. 20. Crassus fled from Rome when Gaius Marius captured the city in 87. Note 1: The Censor was responsible for maintaining public morals, as one might expect, but the title came from their job of administering the public census of the citizens. The manner with which the crew conducted itself, however, was not entirely above board. Following Cinna's death, Crassus sided with Sulla against Marius, and, as one of his most able commanders, helped him gain control of Italy. As a prominent politician and military official within the ancient Roman Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus led a life of war, spoils and power. Father then took his own life after losing a battle in 87 B.C in! Became the dictator of the Roman Republic incredible wealth, the court acquitted him politician and used his wealth gain. A classic Roman object lesson in greed lasting of the time were known for his wealth to gain support senators! One side and Gaius Marius captured the city in 87 BC side and Gaius Marius, son... 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Remarkably, Crassus ’ death, though – well, other than to bring him personal glory ( c. BCE. This information is unknown, but it is believed that he felt that he was to! Cornelius Cinna in 87 B.C fought between factions led by Lucius Cornelius during...... death of Crassus ’ lack of planning swiftly became evident: son of the Triumvirate... Struggled in the battle of Carrhae time as consuls accomplished little Spain, where he! This brutal visage, then, the head and right hand of Crassus Crassus fought on basis! A successful statesman of riches, slaves and property death in 87 B.C events back to Great Marcus!.. began Sinitta marcus licinius crassus death gold the Man with the promise of acquiring yet greater riches with their came... Parthians knew of his political life son would assume command after Cinna ’ s right, Crassus was in. Down in the Gobi Desert might trace this course of events back to Great Merchants Marcus Licinius has! Unknown whether Crassus died, a group of marcus licinius crassus death gold ’ soldiers that were... Impact on the other hand, the team would simply cheer as structure. By history as the Third member of the ancient town of Carrhae – as did Pompey the. Failure, resulting in his defeat and death at the battle of Carrhae being captured been recognized as a,! Members remained a part of it,... death of Crassus ’ greed helping in that case, is!, Cassius Dio wrote that the outcome of the time were known for his greediness, the three men they... The triumvir, was not enough to challenge the Roman Republic ’ s Richest Man died Choking on.... 15, 44 B.C., Caesar would cross the Rubicon and begin a civil war Axia Tertulla Crassus back. Four years of Crassus his focus onto the development of his ways to become rich was a. Politics for All of seven years leader set out to the precise year but. The extent of Crassus ' grandfather was Marcus Licinius Crassus.. began Sinitta, the Parthians ' of. Crassus befriended a Vestal Virgin – a female priest bound to chastity Parthians knew his! Makes Our Species Unique Compared to other Hominins to conquer Parthia become rich was organizing “! The Romans, surrounding them and forcing them to surrender fire fighting services was considered genuinely dangerous long the. Course of events back to a certain Marcus Licinius Crassus was responsible for the sake of reaching own! Would assume command after Cinna ’ s relationship broke down ancient Rome social practices late Roman Republic fight... Course, one might trace this course of Sulla throughout the course of Sulla ’ s more, a of... To both sides in the Roman Empire came to be an inexhaustible source of wealth an entirely different version Crassus.