(Farrel & Fletcher, 2006; Hieser et al., 2014). in response to mechanical stress. Sensitivity assessment. [14] ) may indicate reproductive synchrony among adjacent populations. Cole & Sheath, R.G.). Laminaria contains iodine, an element that the body needs to make thyroid hormones. Nielsen et al. During experimental attempts to adapt red algae to cold by maintaining them at -1°C to + 1°C for several months, a drop in the lethal temperature tolerance of Delesseria sanguinea and a few other species was detected, in the order of 1 to 2°C (Gessner, 1970). Decreases in salinity to 5 psu for Saccharina latissima from Arctic Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) induced bleaching, indicative of cell damage after 5 days of incubation in the laboratory, while treatments decreasing from 20-10psu were associated with decreasing photosynthetic performance (Karsten, 2007). Resilience is therefore assessed as 'High’ and sensitivity ‘Low’. Laminaria digitata may be tall enough to escape direct smothering of the thallus but smothering of the stipe and holdfast may result in deoxygenation and rot, and/or scour. Exposure to salinities outside a kelp’s tolerance range causes osmotic and ionic stress (Kirst 1990) resulting in decreased efficiency of their photosynthetic apparatus (<20-25%, Kirst & Wiencke, 1995). However, a change in seabed type would change the character of the biotope from rock biotope to a sedimentary biotope, so that Laminaria digitata and many of the red seaweed community would be or replaced. intermediate to clear (see benchmark) is likely to reduce siltation and scour, and allow Laminaria digitata)  to increase in abundance, especially at the shallow subtidal extent of the biotope with a resultant change in the character of the biotope. A minimum of 10 weeks a year between 5-18 °C is needed in order to ensure spore formation and hence reproduction and recruitment (Bartsch et al., 2013). An investigation of dispersal of the introduced brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and its competition with some species on the man-made structures of Torquay Marina (Devon, UK). Bulletin of Marine Science, 55, 1263-1276. According to the FAO, 4 074 415 mt (wet weight) of Laminaria were harvested globally in 2004, mainly through cultivation. Sensitivity assessment. (Gunnerus) Foslie. Progress in Underwater Science, 5, 171-186. Emerald Isle Organic Irish Seaweed. & Purchon, R.D. Infralittoral reef biotopes with kelp species: an overview of dynamic and sensitivity characteristics for conservation management of marine SACs. Gessner, F., 1970. Transient sediment load on blades of Arctic Saccharina latissima can mitigate UV radiation effect on photosynthesis. Positive feedback between large-scale disturbance and density-dependent grazing decreases resilience of a kelp bed ecosystem. Nature Climate Change, 3 (1), 78-82. A revision of the north Atlantic species of the Simplices section of Laminaria. JNCC, 2015. Journal of Phycology, 31 (2), 181-199. It is chiefly found in the northern Pacific Ocean and the northern Atlantic Ocean at depths from 8 m to 30 m. Nimura, K., Mizuta, H. & Yamamoto, H., 2002. Andersen (2013) suggests that this, and other regional studies (see Andersen 2013 and the references herein) are illustrative of population connectivity and long distant dispersal in Saccharina latissima. Carbon is used for winter growth, and is stored during the summer as carbohydrate, while nitrogen is used for summer growth (Nielsen et al., 2014). Netalgae, 2012. Resilience is probably 'High' if the shading is temporary but 'Very low' if permanent. Harker, M., Berkaloff, C., Lemoine, Y., Britton, G., Young, A.J., Duval, J.-C., Rmiki, N.-E. & Rousseau, B., 1999. Davison, I.R. The reforestation of historic kelp beds off Norway, indicate that natural re-colonization was prevalent in the past (Moy and Christie, 2012). Juvenile sporophytes of Saccharina latissima can survive salinities of 13 for 3 weeks however, at 10 psu the juveniles become severely stressed and the majority die (Spurkland & Iken, 2011a). I growth in Laminaria saccharina (L) Lamour J Mar Biol Assoc U K 27:651–709 Peteiro C, Freire Ó (2013) Biomass yield and morphological features of the seaweed Saccharina latissima cultivated at two different sites in a coastal bay in the Atlantic coast of Spain. Arzel, P., 2002. For example, IR.LIR.K.Slat.Ldig may occur in the sublittoral, above the IR.LIR.K.Slat.Ft on the shore, but in extremely sheltered conditions may occur up to the base of the Fucus serratus zone, although in extremely sheltered condition, IR.LIR.K.Slat.Ldig (may extend into the shallow sublittoral. Some species are also referred to as tangle. Acclimatisation of marine algae when maintained in media of differing salinities. Phylogenetic analysis of epiphytic marine bacteria on Hole-Rotten diseased sporophytes of Laminaria japonica. Griffiths, A.B., Dennis, R. & Potts, G.W., 1979. Tidal streams of >0.5 m/s or lower as described by Connor et al. Marine Ecology, Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli I, 6, 181-195. Hence ‘Not sensitive’ is recorded. Barriers to propagule (larvae, zoospores) supply could adversely affect the population because it is dependent on rapid recolonization after disturbance. Occurrence of Laminaria: . Streblonema (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) infection in the kelp Laminaria saccharina in the western Baltic. Ecophysiology of polar algae. Sundene, O., 1964. Temperature acclimation of respiration and photosynthesis in the brown alga Laminaria saccharina. Following this in the lower part of the lower shore, the Laminaria saccharina takes over. Photosynthesis and amelioration of desiccation in the intertidal saccate alga Colpornema peregrina. Marine Ecology. A decrease in temperature at the benchmark is not likely to impact biotopes at the centre of their temperature tolerances, however those at its temperature limit are likely to experience decreases in abundance of Saccharina latissima  (due to reduced reproduction and growth) if the temperature is lowered to 0°C for one year. Kombu is a subvariety of kelp, a brown sea algae otherwise known as seaweed or sea vegetable. Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive Treatise on Life in Oceans and Coastal Waters. The ecology of the Lough Ine rapids with special reference to water currents. http://www.netalgae.eu/publications.php: (24/04/2014). The red algae community may survive long-term increase in 2°C but may suffer mortality from short-term change by 5°C, especially if the resultant temperature exceeded 27°C. Seasonal light and temperature interaction effects on development of Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes. At low salinity photosynthesis is restricted to a narrow range of temperatures in adult thalli whereas juvenile thalli have a wider response range (Lobban & Harrison, 1997; fig 6.27). Suppliers of 100% natural hand-harvested seaweeds and edible sea vegetable products from Ireland. Saccharina latissima has a typical heteromorphic life history, in which a microscopic gametophyte alternates with a macroscopic adult, the sporophyte. Therefore, where the a proportion of the biotope is disturbed, damged or lost (e.g. Remarkably, in a comparative study of nine different fucoidans isolated from nine species of brown algae, the fucoidan from Laminaria saccharina (syn. Temperature, Acclimation and Heat Tolerance of photosynthesis in Norwegian Saccharina latissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). 346-371. Effect of a coastal eutrophication on seasonal patterns of growth and tissue composition in Laminaria digitata and L. saccharina. Kombu is a subvariety of kelp, a brown sea algae otherwise known as seaweed or sea vegetable. Gametophytic development of Laminaria spp. Pihl, L., 1994. At the benchmark, a decrease in salinity from 'full' to 'reduced' (18-30 psu) for a year is unlikely to adversely affect Saccharina latissima or Laminaria digitata population, although their abundance may decrease slightly if growth rates are impaired. Habitat: very common in the lower intertidal and shallow subtidal growing on rock in Britain and Ireland. In comparison to Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima exhibits a higher level of tolerance to UV light (indicative of its opportunistic nature, Lüning, 1980). Intertidal habitat may be damaged due to grounding of vessels (boats, ships, tankers etc), and is addressed under 'abrasion' above. Schmidt, A.L. Geographical location plays a major part in determining the characteristic biota associated with this biotope. It is feasible that discarded fishing line, plastic netting, or similar discards could tangle on kelp fronds and potentially damage or remove individuals. Saccharina latissima is found in the NW Atlantic and North Pacific (Wilce 1965;  Druehl, 1970; Lüning, 1990), typically occurring between 40°N and 80°N. Although these species contribute to the structure and function of the biotope they are not considered key species and are not specifically assessed. Sivertsen, K. & Bjorge, A., 2015. Increases in the levels of suspended sediment were found to reduce growth rates in Saccharina latissima (studied as Laminaria saccharina) by 20% (Lyngby & Mortensen, 1996). Suspended Particle Matter (SPM) concentration has a linear relationship with sub surface light attenuation (Kd) (Devlin et al., 2008). The gametophytic and zoospore stages are more vulnerable than their adult counterpart. Journal of Ecology, 36, 305-322. R. Pereira, C. Yarish, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. Laboratory experiments show that even a very thin deposit of fine grained sediment (0.1 -0.2 cm thick) caused rotting of Saccharina latissima, resulting in 25% mortality if covered for 4 weeks, under conditions of no water movement (Lyngby & Mortensen 1996). show a decrease of 50% photosynthetic activity when turbidity increases by 0.1/m (light attenuation coefficient = 0.1-0.2/m; Staehr & Wernberg, 2009). Saier, B. Yarish, C., Penniman, C.A. Extreme climatic event drives range contraction of a habitat-forming species. Short-term effect of human trampling on the upper infralittoral macroalgae of Ustica Island MPA (western Mediterranean, Italy). There is little evidence on sensitivity to abrasion in this biotope. In comparison to Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima exhibits a higher level of tolerance to UV light (indicative of its opportunistic nature, Lüning, 1980). It can be inferred from these observations that microbial pathogens may impact growth rates of individuals. The biotope, therefore, has ‘Low’ sensitivity to the pressure. The mannitol content varies markedly in the fronds of Saccharina and Laminaria species in northern temperate countries, with maximum contents during summer and autumn (Jensen and Haug, 1956). Salinity tolerance of eukaryotic marine algae. This biotope is characteristic of wave sheltered to extremely wave sheltered conditions (Connor et al., 2004). In the direct footprint of the impact resistance is therefore ‘None’ (loss of >75%). This economically important genus is characterized by long, leathery laminae and relatively large size. Beneath the canopy a wide variety of red seaweeds, including Palmaria palmata, Corallina officinalis, Mastocarpus stellatus, Chondrus crispus and Plocamium cartilagineum, may be present. Parker, H., 1981. & Manfredi, C., 1995. No direct evidence was found for the removal of Saccharina latissima or Laminaria digitata from a biotope as by-catch. Therefore, a resistance of ‘Low’ is suggested based on limited evidence. Suspended Particle Matter (SPM) concentration has a linear relationship with subsurface light attenuation (Kd) (Devlin et al., 2008). Despite this ability, seaweeds in general are considered particularly vulnerable to short-term warming events (Dayton & Tegner, 1984; Smale & Wernberg, 2013; Wernberg et al., 2013; from Smale et al., 2013). Trampling on shallow algal communities in the Mediterranean reported that erect canopy forming species (e.g. When considered in conjunction with emergence, wave exposure is beneficial to Saccharina latissima, with wave spray acting to hydrate individual alga which would otherwise suffer from desiccation and decreased growth rates (Kain, 1979). 10-15°C, with reproductive ability impaired to 20 % at 18°C ( Arzel, 1998.! 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